WGHE Archived Publications

Higher Education Differentiation and articulation in Tertiary Education Systems: A Study of Twelve African Countries By Ng’ethe ,Njuguna; Subotzky, George and Afeti, George
This study explores the extent and nature of higher education systems in 12 African countries, It looks at curriculum and teaching practices, types of courses and qualifi cations, the mandates and other characteristics of institutions, state regulations, fi nancing and quality assurance. The extensive research is a fi rst step towards encouraging further studies to anchor differentiation and articulation within national tertiary education systems. Commissioned by the WGHE and published jointly with the World Bank and the Association of African Universities (AAU), 2008. Available in English only.

A Toolkit for Mainstreaming Gender in Higher Education in Africa (Download the full document (in PDF Format 6,2 Mo)
This toolkit was developed in an attempt to bridge persistent gender gaps in tertiary education institutions in Africa. Focus is on staff recruitment, student welfare, curriculum development and the general institutional culture.

The Toolkit comprises of the ten following modules and a Literature Review as follows:
Module 1 – Basic Facts about Gender (.pdf 1,400 KB)
Module 2 – Forming Policies and Strategies (.pdf 590 KB)
Module 3 – The Role of Human Resources Development and Management (.pdf 490 KB)
Module 4 – Mainstreaming Gender in the Curriculum (.pdf 434 KB)
Module 5 – Research and Gender Sensitive Research Methods (.pdf 590 KB)
Module 6 – Faculty and Support Programs (.pdf 438 KB)
Module 7 – Student Access and Retention (.pdf 438 KB)
Module 8 – Gender Violence and Sexual Harassment (.pdf 502 KB)
Module 9 – Disaggregated Data (.pdf 590 KB)
Module 10 – Resource Mobilization for Gender Equity (.pdf 460 KB)
Literature Review (.pdf 1,100 KB)

ADEA Working Group on Higher Education/Association of Africa Universities, Accra, Ghana, 2007. ISBN: 9988-589-32-8. Available in English French an Portuguese in CD Rom format.

HO Polytechnic HIV/AIDS policy
HO Polytecnic, Ghana (with support from ADEA/WGHE), September 2005. Available in English only
This policy document provides an overview of HIV/AIDS in Ghana. It outlines the objectives and fundamental principles, proposes strategic measures to fight HIV/AIDS in a higher education institution. The rights and responsibilities of staff and students is discussed, recommendations in the areas of prevention, care counseling and support are outlined.

A Toolkit for Higher Education Institutions in Africa. Mitigating the Impact of HIV/AIDS
Association of Africa Universities with ADEA Working Group on Higher Education/Johannesburg, 2004. Also exists in French and Portuguese.
The HIV/AIDS toolkit is a package developed specifically for tertiary institutions with the aim of supporting the development and management of comprehensive institutional responses to HIV/AIDS. The package comprises resource materials on HIVAIDS in the African higher education context, advocacy strategies for use within tertiary institutions, and practical guidelines for the design, management and implementation of HIV and AIDS policies and programs in African higher education institutions.
The Toolkit comprises of the ten following modules:
Module 1: Management
Module 2: Structure
Module 3: Policy
Module 4: Finance
Module 5: Human resources management
Module 6: Student services
Module 7: Curriculum reform
Module 8: Research
Module 9: Community engagement
Module 10: Monitoring and evaluation

Directory of African Higher Education Institutions Responding to the threat of HIV/AIDS
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education/Association of Africa Universities, Accra, Ghana, 2004. Available in English only. ISBN 9988 589 31 X
Between 2003 and 2005, WGHE and its partners commissioned a survey on the "Responses of Higher Education institutions in Africa to HIV/AIDS". This directory presents the profiles of the institutions surveyed, with details of their individual responses.

Higher Education Innovations in Sub-Saharan Africa, (With specific reference to universities) By ASSIÉ-LUMUMBA N'dri; NJUGUNA Ng'ethe; SUBOTZKY, George and SUTHERLAND-ADDY Esi.
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education/Association of Africa Universities, Accra, Ghana, 2004. Available in English only.
"What is the current state of university education in Africa and what is the likely future?" This is a current underlying theme in addressing issues related to higher education in Africa. This report seeks to identify and document higher education innovations currently underway. It is based on several regional surveys whose purpose was to identify significant innovations at institutions and faculties and in six areas deemed critical to the transformation of higher education in Africa namely; responsiveness to societal needs, strategic planning, financing, governance, curricula reform and human resource development. Initiated in mid-2000, this report is part of the ongoing debate on the nature and future of African higher education based on several regional reports.

Strategic Development Plan for Information and Communications Technology (ICT), 2003 -2005
AAU/ADEA, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, 2004. Available in English only.
A primary focus of the ADEA Working Group on Higher Education is to give full consideration to the rapid emergence of new information and communication technologies development and the process of strategic planning in higher education. During 2000-2003, WGHE encouraged universities to develop and integrate ICT Strategic Plans within institutions by funding pilot initiatives. This document is the fruit of the process of policy development in the University of Zimbabwe.

Higher Education Institutions in Africa Responding to HIV/AIDS. Response of Universities and Colleges to HIV/AIDS By Barnabas Otaala, Emmanuel Lutaaya, et Maurice Ocquaye
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education/Association of Africa Universities, Accra, Ghana, 2004. Available in English only. Printed in Accra, Ghana. ISBN 9988 - 589 - 30 - 1
This report synthesizes the findings and recommendations of an independent survey conducted between 2003-2005, which document institutional responses of universities, polytechnics and teacher training colleges in Africa to HIV/AIDS. It takes stock of the impact of WGHE and other partners' investment and interventions on HIV/AIDS policies and programs.

HIV/AIDS and Policy
Highridge Teachers College (with support from ADEA/WGHE), July, 2003. Available in English only.
This policy document provides an overview of Kenya's HIV /AIDS situation, as well as the policies put into place by the Kenya government to contain the scourge. It also highlights the principles and values of the college, the legal issues on HIV/AIDS the rights and responsibilities of the infected and affected, the integration of HIV/AIDS curriculum into teaching and service activities and strategies for intervention

The Mombasa Polytechnic HIV/AIDS Policy
The Mombasa Polytechnic (with support from ADEA/WGHE), 2003. Available in English only.
This document which aims at formulating an HIV/AIDS policy to guide related activities and decisions within the institution includes components on: The rights and responsibilities of infected and affected employees and students; integrating AIDS issues into the program activities, and providing preventive support services.

The University of Botswana HIV/AIDS Policy
University of Botswana, November, 2002. Available in English only
This document summarizes the University of Botswana's response to the National HIV/Aids Policy. The policy applies to all employees and students, the objectives being to educate staff and students to deal with the epidemic and promote activities that result in an HIV free environment.

Nkumba University HIV/AIDS POLICY
Nkumba University, Uganda, (with support from ADEA/WGHE), December, 2002. Available in English only
In addition to outlining objectives in creating an HIV/AIDS policy, this policy report looks at the provision of preventive care and support services and education at campus, outlines the structures for implementing and integrating HIV/AIDS issues into teaching and research, as well as advocacy, networking and collaboration at Nkumba University, Uganda.

Challenging the Challenger
Understanding and Expanding the Response of Universities in Africa to HIV/AIDS
prepared by M. J. Kelly
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education, 2001.
Also exists in French.
The failure of many tertiary education institutions to recognize and confront the HIV/AIDS crisis on their campuses means the loss of hard-won development gains and crippling prospects for the future. This report eloquently documents this “conspiracy of silence.” It draws upon the results of 7 case studies of universities in 6 countries: Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Zambia. It seeks to understand how the disease is affecting African universities and to identify responses and coping mechanisms that might usefully be shared with sister institutions in similar circumstances. The report closes by outlining a two-pronged strategy for African universities to consider in shaping their own responses to HIV/AIDS.

Directory of Donor Assistance to African Higher Education
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education, 2001.
Also exists in French.
This directory is based on a survey of development partners and assistance agencies active in sub-Saharan Africa. It provides information on 32 donor agencies, their general goals, type of assistance provided, beneficiaries, contacts, and more. It is intended for and is particularly useful to members of African universities and ministries of education, as well as all those seeking concise comparative information on the range of donor priorities and possibilities for assistance in the field of higher education.

Building a Research Capacity Network in Africa

by Martin West and Lesley Shackleton
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education, 1999.
USHEPiA, is a successful South-South capacity building network experience in the area of science, engineering and the humanities. The initiative, led by the University of Cape Town, involves a number of partner universities in East and Southern Africa. The program seeks to foster research capacity and collaboration amongst African researchers in order to build institutional and human capacities. Since its inception in 1995, the program has awarded 39 fellowships. This report examines the origins of the project, from its conception, to its operation and identifies several achievements. It provides a critical analysis of the successes, and lessons learned as an attempt to incite or encourage ways of developing African research capacities using a network of institutions.

Reforming a National System of Higher Education
The Case of Cameroon
by Dorothy L. Njeuma, Herbert N. Endeley, Francis Fai Mbuntum, Nalova Lyonga, Dennis L. Nkweteyim, Samuel Musenja, and Ekanje Elizabeth
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education, 1999.
Also exists in French.
The higher education system of Cameroon experienced a series of reforms from the 1960’s to the 1990’s. The most recent reform, was designed to provide quality education at a more manageable scale. This involved several important adjustments in the areas of accessibility, quality education, and capacity-building, and introduced new challenges such as developing information technology and experimenting with distance learning. This report provides a succinct account of the process and impact of the reforms on the higher education system in Cameroon.

Promoting Access, Quality and Capacity-Building in African Higher Education
The Strategic Planning Experience at Eduardo Mondlane University
by Peter Fry and Rogéro Utui
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education, 1999.
During the 1990’s, strategic institutional reforms were introduced at Mozambique’s Eduardo Mondlane University. These reforms were intended to expand access to higher education, improve the quality of university teaching and research, and strengthen capacities for institutional planning, program implementation, performance monitoring and output evaluation. This report analyzes the efforts made in carrying out the reforms, takes into consideration the historical and political background, and presents the problems and prospects under which the planning process evolved.

Tertiary Distance Education and Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa by William Saint
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education, 1999.
Also exists in French.
This paper addresses the question of how African nations might improve the balance between tertiary education, access, and funding, without further sacrifices in quality. It provides a rationale for the potential benefits of tertiary distance education, which can increase educational access and improve quality, while being cost efficient. This rationale is backed up by the use of facts and statistics from distance and tertiary education efforts in numerous countries..

Tertiary Distance Learning in Sub-Saharan Africa
Overview and Directory to Programs
by Roberts & Associates
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education, 1998.
Also exists in French.
Tertiary Distance Learning in Sub-Saharan Africa is an overview and directory of tertiary level distance learning programs in Africa. The report also describes the current status of tertiary distance learning in Africa, drawing upon papers presented at the eleventh meeting of the Working Group on Higher Education held in Saint Louis, Senegal, October 20-22, 1997.

Revitalizing Universities in Africa
Strategy and Guidelines
Prepared by the Association of African Universities (AAU) and the World Bank.
ADEA Working Group on Higher Education. World Bank, 1997.
Also exists in French.
Universities in Africa have suffered several constraints due to internal and external factors. They have been greatly affected by a growth in enrollment rates which have overpowered financial capacity. Although there is an abundance of literature on strategies to revitalize African universities, there is hardly any systematic documentation that provides guidance for African universities, governments, donors, and the World Bank on how to improve the quality of African universities.This report gives practical strategies and guidelines for improving the quality of African universities by internal initiatives through planning. It recommends that governments recognize their universities as important resources, and donor agencies reconsider their stance with regard to investment in higher education.

Strategic Planning at Selected African Universities by Donald Ekong and Patricia Plante.
Association of African Universities, 1996.
Also exists in French.

Revival and Renewal: Reflections on the Creation of a System of Tertiary Education in Ghana by Esi Sutherland-Addy.
AFTHR Technical Note, The World Bank, 1995.

The University in Africa in the 1990's and Beyond
Summary report of a colloquium jointly organised by the Association of African Universities and the DAE Working Group on Higher Education, Accra, Association of African Universities, 1995.

Demand, Access, and Equity Issues in African Higher Education: Past Policies, Current Practices, and Readiness for the 21st Century by N'dri Thérèse Assié-Lumumba.
Association of African Universities, 1994.
Also exists in French.

Adequate and Sustainable Funding of African Universities by José Negrao.
Association of African Universities, 1994.
Also exists in French.

The Emerging Role of African Universities in the Development of Science and Technology by G.T.G. Mohamedbhai.
Association of African Universities, 1994.
Also exists in French.

Governance Issues in African Universities: Improving Management and Governance to Make African Universities Viable in the Nineties and Beyond by Rudo Barbra Gaidzanwa.
Association of African Universities, 1994.
Also exists in French.

Enhancing Linkages Between African Universities, the Wider Society, the Business Community and Governments by Kilemi Mwiria.
Association of African Universities, 1994.
Also exists in French.

Universities in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities of International Cooperation by Berhanu M. Abegaz.
Association of African Universities, 1994.
Also exists in French.

Quality and Relevance: African Universities in the 21st Century by Tade Akin Aina.
Association of African Universities, 1994.
Also exists in French.

Beyond the Fragments: Donors' Reporting Systems at the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique and the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania by David Wield.

The Future Missions and Roles of the African Universities by Geremie Sawadago.
Association of African Universities, 1994.
Also exists in French.

Staff Loss and Staff Retention at Selected African Universities by Robert Blair and Josephine Jordan.
AFTHR Technical Note No. 18, The World Bank, 1994.

Building Consensus for Higher Education Reform in Africa: Some Reflections by Mary Antoinette Brown Sherman.
Africa Technical Department, The World Bank, 1993.

Higher Education in Francophone Africa: Assessment of the Potential of the Traditional Universities and Alternatives for Development by N'Dri Thérèse Assie-Lumumba.
AFTHR Technical Note No. 5, The World Bank, 1993.
Also exists in French.

Financial Diversification and Income Generation at African Universities by Robert D.D. Blair.
AFTED Technical Note, No. 2, The World Bank, 1992.

University Governance: Problems and Perspectives in Anglophone Africa by Kilemi Mwiria.
AFTED Technical Note, No. 3, The World Bank, 1992.

Universities in Africa: Strategies for Stabilization and Revitalization by William S. Saint.
Technical Paper No. 194, The World Bank, 1992.
Also exists in French.

A Consultation on Higher Education in Africa by Trevor Coombe.
The Ford Foundation, 1991.

Study on Cost-Effectiveness and Efficiency in African Universities
Association of African Universities, 1991.

WGHE Meeting Documents and Reports

WGHE Steering Committee Meeting (Accra, June 4-5, 2002)

WGHE Steering Committee Meeting(Arusha, October 7, 2001).

WGHE Steering Committee Meeting(Nairobi, February 10, 2001).

13th Meeting of the Working Group (December 1-3, 1999, Abuja, Nigeria).
Themes: Higher Education in Nigeria; New Technologies for Teaching and Learning; Role and Mission of WGHE; AAU Progress report

African Regional Networks for Graduate Training and Research (November 3-5, 1998, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).

Tertiary Distance Learning in Africa (October 20-22, 1997, St. Louis, Senegal).

Politique Institutionelle en matière de VIH/SIDA dans les universités de Togo
Universities of Lomé and Kara (with support from the ADEA WG on Higher Education), 2002. In French only.

(Institutional policy on HIV/AIDS in the universities of Togo)
This policy takes into consideration the viewpoints of the various socio-professional categories in the university community, based on a survey conducted at the University of Lomé and the University of Kara in 2004. This document is based on Togo's national strategic framework for combating HIV/AIDS (2001-2005), adopted in March 2001. It outlines the measures that should be taken by the university community to inform its members and raise their awareness of the problems, to conduct screening for the disease and provision of care, to involve universities in the fight against HIV/AIDS, and to include HIV/AIDS training modules in the curricula of faculties, schools and institutes.